Law is a set of rules that are developed and enforced by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It is one of the most commonly used terms in English, and it has many different meanings ranging from legal science to the art of justice.
The definition of law is a matter of debate and may vary by culture. In the United States, for example, there is a large variety of laws that govern how people behave in their homes, work places, and social relationships.
There are also a number of specific areas that fall within the domain of law, such as criminal law, family law, property law and tax law. These areas of law are often regulated by government agencies or independent regulating bodies, and lawyers must obtain special qualifications to practice their trade.
A lawyer is a person who has gained distinct professional identity through specified legal procedures and is required to have a special qualification (such as a law degree or a doctorate in law). They are appointed to office by law.
The main purpose of law is to keep the peace, maintain the status quo, protect individual rights, and promote social justice. Some legal systems serve these purposes better than others; for instance, a nation ruled by an authoritarian government may tend to oppress minorities and political opponents, while in democratic societies there is an emphasis on the rule of law and the protection of citizens’ rights.
According to Hohfeldian jurisprudence, there are four normative positions that are referred to as “rights”. These are claims and privileges (Hohfeld 1919), powers and immunities (Lyons 1970; Sumner 1987: 27-29).
Claim-rights are the most common type of right in law. X has a claim-right against Y with respect to some ph if and only if Y is under a duty to X to ph.
Privilege-rights are the second most common type of right in law. Y is under a privilege-right against X with respect to some ph if Y has been deprived of some ph that is attributable to X’s right over Y to some ph (Lyons 1970).
Power-rights are the third most common type of right in law. Unlike claim-rights, power-rights are active. They determine what Y must or should do to X.
Immunity-rights are the fourth most common type of right in law. Similarly, Y is under an immunity-right against X with respect to some other ph if and only if another ph is under a duty to X with respect to Y.
There are four universal principles that govern the adoption, administration, adjudication and enforcement of laws: a clear, publicized, stable, and evenly applied law; a law that protects human rights and property rights; a law that is administered efficiently and effectively; and a legal system that reflects the interests of the population.
These universal principles have been adopted, modified, and adapted by various governments in different countries. They have been developed in accordance with internationally accepted standards and norms, and they have been tested and refined in consultation with a wide variety of experts worldwide.