Automobiles are a very important part of our lives today and it is hard to imagine a life without them. They help us get to where we need to go in a timely manner and allow us to travel long distances with ease. They also provide a sense of freedom and independence as we do not have to rely on others for transportation or wait for public vehicles to arrive. In addition, automobiles are often a status symbol for those who want to show off their wealth or success. The branch of engineering that deals with the manufacture and technology of cars is known as automotive engineering.
AUTOMOBILES: AN INTRODUCTION
The modern automobile, invented in the late 1800s, is a four-wheeled motor vehicle for passenger transportation that usually runs on gasoline (liquid petroleum gas), although some run on electric power or other liquid fuels. The automotive industry is one of the largest industries in the world. The automobile revolutionized both industrial production and everyday life. It led to the development of roads, improved highway systems, and other forms of ground transportation. It also gave rise to new industries and services, such as gas stations and convenience stores. And it allowed middle-class families to enjoy a quality of life that would have been impossible without access to an automobile.
During the first half of the 20th century, the automobile became a dominant force in the United States and many other countries. Its design and production methods were revolutionized by Henry Ford’s use of the moving assembly line, which made his Model T car affordable to middle-class Americans. By the end of the decade, it was a common sight on the nation’s roads.
The development of the automobile is a fascinating story. The scientific and technical building blocks of this “horseless carriage” date back several hundred years. In the 1600s, Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens developed a type of internal combustion engine sparked by gunpowder. Several other inventors contributed to the development of the automobile, including Gottlieb Daimler, Karl Benz and Nicolaus Otto.
The most significant advance in the automobile was the invention of an internal combustion engine that used burning gasoline to create mechanical energy that turned the wheels of the car. This was the basis for the modern automobile, and today, most cars use a water-cooled piston-type internal combustion engine powered by gasoline or other liquid fuels. They can drive on either two, four or all-four wheels, depending on the type of transmission and the distribution of weight between the front and rear. The design of the automobile depends to a large degree on its intended use, as products built for off-road use require durable, simple systems that can withstand severe overloads and extreme operating conditions, while those designed for high-speed travel on limited-access road systems must be optimized for passenger comfort, high engine performance and high stability at speed. In addition, automobiles must be environmentally friendly. To this end, manufacturers must meet stringent government standards for safety and emissions.